Psalm 110:1 – The “Lord” of David

Yahweh says to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies your footstool for your feet.” — Psalm 110:1, World English

It is claimed by many trinitarians and some others that Jesus had to be a person of Yahweh, since David spoke to him in Psalm 110:1. Some claim that one person of Yahweh speaks to another person of himself as David’s Lord, and that since the New Testament identifies Jesus as David’s Lord, then Jesus is Yahweh.

Since the scriptures do show that Jesus was in existence before the world of mankind was made (John 1:1-3; 17:5), we can say that David could have spoken to Jesus. However, Psalm 110:1 offers no evidence of such, and even if David were speaking to the pre-human Jesus at that time, it would still not mean that David’s Lord is Yahweh.

David spoke prophetically in Psalm 110:1, just as he does in many of the Psalms.

When did Jesus sit at Yahweh’s right hand, as this speaks of? The Bible tells us that it was after he was raised from the dead.

Mark 16:19 – So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.

Peter says:

Acts 2:34 For David didn’t ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, ‘Yahweh said to my Lord, “Sit by my right hand,
Acts 2:35 Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.”‘
Acts 2:36 “Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.”

This certainly lets us know that David is speaking prophetically, just as he was speaking in Psalms 16:8-11. See Acts 2:22-33.

Paul tells us:

Ephesians 1:17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him;
Ephesians 1:18 having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,
Ephesians 1:19 and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might
Ephesians 1:20 which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places,
Ephesians 1:21 far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come.

Hebrews 1:3 tell us that Jesus,

when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high.

1 Peter 3:22
who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, angels and authorities and powers being made subject to him.

Jesus was exalted to Yahweh’s right hand when he ascended to his God.

Jesus raised the question of who David’s “Lord” was in Matthew 22:42-45:

Matthew 22:42-45 (New King James Version) saying, “What do you think about the Christ? Whose Son is He?” They said to Him, “The Son of David.” He said to them, “How then does David in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool” ‘? “If David then calls Him ‘Lord,’ how is He his Son?”

See also Mark 12:35-37 and Luke 20:41-44.

Jesus said: “I am the root *and* the offspring of David.” (Revelation 22:16) How so? Because the promised Son of David, David’s offspring, also in his resurrection became the “life-giving spirit” (1 Corinthians 15:25), and as such, the ruler of and restorer of life to the human race, which includes David. “For to this end Christ died, rose, and lived again, that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living.” (Romans 14:9) Thus when David is raised to life again by Jesus, Jesus will be David’s Lord.

But it is also well to remember that angels in olden times, sent to bear messages to mankind, were addressed by men as Lord — that is, superior or master. In a similar sense Jesus before he became a man was man’s superior; and when a man he was sinless, since his body of flesh was prepared by his God (Hebrews 10:5), and hence still far superior to those about him; and in addition to this as the agent or messenger of Yahweh, he was a Lord, a master, a teacher, among men.

Thus he said to his disciples, “You call me, ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord.’ You say so correctly, for so I am.” (John 13:13.) But he was not then Lord in the sense which David’s prophecy of Psalm 110:1 implied, and to which our Lord’s question referred, except in a reckoned sense, until he had finished his trial and sacrifice, and was raised from the dead, and sat at Yahweh’s right hand in heaven. — Romans 14:9

The sense in which it is used is made clear by Revelation 22:16, “I am the root of David,” that is, the father or progenitor of David in the coming day of regeneration, when he will sit on his throne of glory (thus, as David’s Lord) with his disciples. — Matthew 19:28.

The Lord Said to My Lord

Most translations have the Holy Name of God changed to “The Lord” in Psalm 110:1, making it appear that two “Lords” are being spoken of. Being ignorant themselves of the fact that the translators have changed the Holy Name to “the Lord”, or else preying on the ignorance of the reader regarding this, some trinitarians and others thus make much ado about their being two are both addressed as “Lord” in Psalm 110:1, and they falsely claim  that the two  are both the one only true God. Having a good translation of the verse helps to clarifiy this, and it also helps to realize that Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Exodus 3:14,15), is being depicted, not as three persons, but as only one person, and that the one that David speaks of as “my lord” is depicted as separate and distinct from the unipersonal Yahweh.

We quoted the World English above. Some other translations that show the Holy Name in Psalm 110:1:

Jehovah said unto my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I put thine enemies [as] footstool of thy feet. — Darby Translation

The affirmation of Jehovah to my Lord: `Sit at My right hand, Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.’ — Young’s Literal

A declaration of Jehovah to my Lord: Sit at My right hand, until I place Your enemies as Your footstool. — Green’s Literal

The declaration of Yahweh to my Lord – Sit thou at my right hand, Until I make thy foes thy footstool. — Rotherham’s Emphasized

The utterance of Jehovah to my Lord is: “Sit at my right hand Until I place your enemies as a stool for your feet.” — New World

See also our study:

One God, One Lord

Was David  Speaking of Himself as “Lord”?

Some others claim that “lord” in the phrase “my lord” in Psalm 110:1 refers to David himself, which really makes no sense. It would mean that the David was saying that he was the “lord” of himself. However, some Jewish authors claim that David wrote this to be sung by the “Levitical singers.” From this it seems that their reasoning is they assume that “my” in the phrase “my lord” would apply to each singer individually as saying “my lord” to David. This would mean that David was sitting at God’s right hand.

Psalm 110, however, never mentions the Levitical singers, nor is there anything in the context that would indicate that “my” in the phrase “my lord” is referring to anyone other than David, and thus our conclusion is that David refers to a “lord” over himself, who is not himself. Furthermore, David died. How could David be a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek (Psalm 110:4) if David is dead? Why would the Levites wish to call a dead priest “my lord”? It should be evident that the one who is become priest after the order of Melchizedek must be one who is not dead, but alive. David, however, speaks prophetically in Psalm; he is not speaking of what was actually the present, for Jesus is not such a priest until after his ascension, for he is not such a priest while in the days of his flesh on earth. (Hebrews 6:20; 8:4) Jesus fits this role, for since he has been raised from the dead, he dies no more. — Romans 6:9. David wrote of God speaking to his — David’s — lord, there is no indication that David was speaking of himself as the lord of someone else.

How thankful we should be for further revelation of who this is, that David was speaking prophetically of the coming Messiah, who, now living forever, has an eternal inheritance of the throne of David, by means of which he will soon bring the promised blessings to the whole earth to all peoples of all nations!– Genesis 3:15; 2:18; 2 Samuel 7:11-13; Psalm 2:6-8; 110:1-4; Isaiah 2:2-4; 9:6,7; 11:1-9; 16:5; Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15; Ezekiel 34:23; 37:25; Daniel 7:27; Luke 1:32,33; 2:14; 20:41-44; Acts 2:22-36; 3:13-26; 13:32-39; Ephesians 1:20-22; Hebrews 1:3,5,13; 5:5,6; 6:20; 7:28; 8:4; 12:2; 1 Peter 3:22; Revelation 22:16.

Yes, we have no reason to think that “my” in the phrase “my lord” means any other than David. David wrote of Yahweh as speaking to the Lord of David. It is David’s Lord who becomes the firstborn son from the dead to live forever, and who is thus the one who becomes a priest after the manner of Melchizedek. David is not now alive, and has certainly not been serving as the everlasting priest of the Levites for the past 3,000 years or so, so that these priests would call him “my lord”.

Related RL Studies

Adonay, The Tetragrammaton, and the Great Isaiah Scroll

1 Corinthians 8:6 – One God, One Lord; Deuteronomy 6:4

Ephesians 4:5 – One Lord

Revelation 17:4 – Lord of Lords and King of Kings; Revelation 19:16

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2 comments to Psalm 110:1 – The “Lord” of David

  • Shalom,

    PLEASE explain the Ps. 110:1 UNITARIAN notion of human/angel “adoni” exclusivity (not God) with respect to Brown-Driver-Briggs (BDB) – and their THEOPHANIC angel for Josh.5:14 & Jdgs. 6:13 listed under section (i) below.

    3 suffix 1 singular (אֲדֹנַי) אֲדֹנִי (1) reference to men: my lord, my master, (a) master Exodus 21:5 (Cov’t code) Genesis 24:12 +, Genesis 44:5 (J, 20 t.) 1 Samuel 30:13,15; 2 Kings 5:3,20,22; 2 Kings 6:15; (b) husband Genesis 18:12 (J); (c) prophet 1 Kings 18:7,13; 2 Kings 2:19; 2 Kings 4:16,28; 2 Kings 6:5; 2 Kings 8:5; (d) prince Genesis 42:10 (E), Genesis 23:6,11,15 (P), Genesis 43:20; Genesis 44:18 +, Genesis 47:18, + (J, 12 t.); Judges 4:18; (e) king 1 Samuel 22:12 + (Samuel & Kings 75 t.); (f) father Genesis 31:35 (E); (g) Moses Exodus 32:22; Numbers 11:28; Numbers 12:11; Numbers 32:26,27 (J); Numbers 36:2 (twice in verse) (P); (h) priest 1 Samuel 1:15,26 (twice in verse); (i) theophanic angel Joshua 5:14; Judges 6:13; (j) captain 2 Samuel 11:11; (k) General recognition of superiority Genesis 24:18; Genesis 32:5 + Genesis 33:8 +; Genesis 44:7 + (J, 13 t.), Ruth 2:13; 1 Samuel 25:24 + (15 t.); (2) reference to God: אֲדֹנָי


    • ResLight


      I am not sure what it is that you would like for me to explain. In Psalm 110:1, it should be clear and the default reasoning should clearly be that the Lord of David is not Jehovah.

      The appearances of angels of Jehovah (Yahweh) as “men” are not theophonies of Jehovah Himself, but rather the angels of Jehovah represent, act on behalf of, and speak for Jehovah.

      See studies related to “Angel of Yahweh”: