Alpha and Omega, The First and the Last

In the process of moving this study to:

The claim is made that the book of Revelation shows that not only is Jehovah the Alpha and Omega, but that Jesus is also. If this were true (we don’t believe it is) all this would prove is that in some way the title Alpha and Omega is applied both to Jehovah and to Jesus; it does not prove that Jesus is his God. In Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 48:12 we find the expression “first and last” used of Yahweh. From Isaiah 44:6,7 this expression, “first and last” appears to mean “first and last” in might (godship), being the source of all might, something which the false gods of the heathen cannot claim. However, most of our trinitarian and oneness neighbors appear to read into this expression ‘eternal’, although there is nothing in the scritpures to warrant this meaning.

In the last book of the Bible, we again find this expression “first and last”. At least twice it is applied to Jesus in Revelation 1:17 and Revelation 2:8. Thus our trinitarian and oneness neighbors would have us accept this as proof that Jesus is Yahweh, since the phrase is applied to both Yahweh and Jesus. The phrase appears also in Revelation 22:13, where Yahweh applies it to himself.

Another phrase found in Revelation 1:8; 21:6; 22:13 is “beginning and the end”. Additionally, we find the phrase — Alpha and Omega — in Revelation 1:8; 21:6; 22:13 — all three of which refer to Yahweh. Thus, neither of these phrases are used of Jesus.

Looking at Revelation 1:1, we note that the Revelation is from God who gave it to Jesus. (This should be enough to prove that Jesus is not his God.) The message is delivered through an angel to John. In Revelation 1:4 John says the message is from the Father, Yahweh, who is and who was and who is to come. Then in verse 5, John says: “and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood.” Many translations make a distinction between Jesus and “his God” in Revelation 1:6, as, for instance, The World English Bible translation: “he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father.” Thus John identifies two individuals which the messages are from, the Father, Yahweh, and Jesus, God’s Son.

Then in verse 8 we find the quote: “‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End’, says the Lord God, ‘the being who was and who is to come — the Almighty.’”

“The Lord” in this verse is Yahweh, not Jesus, as shown from Revelation 1:4. The phrase “Lord God” is based on the later Septuagint usage of substituting Kurios for Yahweh. The Hebrew phrase is transliterated as Yahweh Elohim. The later Septuagint has substituted Yahweh with Kurios [Lord] and Elohim with Theos [God]. This can be seen by comparing Acts 3:22; 7:37 with the Hebrew of Deuteronomy 18:15. In all instances where the phrase occurs in the NT, it is in reference to Yahweh, the Father of our Lord Jesus. — Luke 1:32; 1 Peter 3:10-15; Revelation 11:17,19; 15:3; 16:7; 18:8; 21:11; 22:6.

Likewise, with the phrases “the Lord our God” and “the Lord your God”. These phrases are always used in reference to Yahweh, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus. — Matthew 4:7 (Deuteronomy 6:16); Matthew 4:10 (Deuteronomy 6:13; 10:20); Matthew 22:37 (Deuteronomy 6:5); Mark 12:29 (Deuteronomy 6:4); etc.
Some Christian translators in the past, in translating the Greek to Hebrew, have inserted the tetragrammaton (the holy name, often rendered as “Yahweh” or “Jehovah”) into Revelation 1:8. The following are some Hebrew translations that contain the tetragrammaton in Revelation 1:8: NT, by W. Robertson, 1661; NT, by J. C. Reichardt, 1846; NT, by J. C. Reichardt & J. H. R. Biesenthal, 1866; NT, by F. Delitzsch, 1981 edition; NT, by I. Salkinson & C. D. Ginsburg, 1891.

See also our study on Revelation 1:8.

The fact that the NT Greek manuscripts we have give a substitute for God’s name does not take away the fact that it is Yahweh, not his Son Jesus, who is speaking in Revelation 1:8.

In verses 9 and 10 John refers to himself when he heard a loud voice, as of a trumpet, (verse 11) saying, “Write what you see….” This quote is from Jesus, not Yahweh, as described in the following verses. In verse 18 Jesus says: “I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore.” Jesus was actually dead and not alive anywhere, if this is to make any sense at all, for he contrasts his being dead with being alive forevermore. Now we know that God cannot die, so Jesus is thus by this verse proved to not be God Almighty.

Many translations have the words added in Revelation 1:11, before the word “Write”: “I am the Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last.” However, this sentence does not appear in the oldest Greek manuscripts and therefore does not appear in many Bible translations, and thus we do not include them as part of our discussion.

Let us now examine Revelation 21:6 in its context.

Revelation 21:5 He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” He said, “Write, for these words are faithful and true.”
Revelation 21:6 He said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give freely to him who is thirsty from the spring of the water of life.
Revelation 21:7 He who overcomes, I will give him these things. I will be his God, and he will be my son.

If these are the words of Jesus, then they could only be applied to him in a manner similar to general usages of the words for God as mightiness. — Matthew 19:28; Romans 8:19-21.

Nevertheless, he who sits on the throne in the book of Revelation is spoken of as the God of Jesus (Revelation 2:7; 3:2,12, World English), and is distinguished from the Lamb. (Revelation 5:1-7; 5:13, 6:16, 7:10,15) Applying this to the One sitting on the throne in Revelation 21:5 would mean that these words are the words of the God of Jesus, not Jesus himself, although they were delivered by Jesus to the angel who delivered them to John. (Revelation 1:1,2) Many, if not most, trinitarian Bible scholars acknowledge that the words of Revelation 1:5 are spoken by God the Father as distinguished from the Lamb, but some vaguely, and often without any reason for doing so, will claim that the one being quoted in verses 6 and/or 7 is Jesus. It should be apparent that the one being quoted verses 5-7 are all the “one who sits on the throne”.

These words of Revelation 21:7 are not directed to the believers of this age, but to the world in the age to come, in the day of judgment and regeneration of the world, although indirectly they are applicable, since the believers in this age are reckoned, counted, imputed (Strong’s #3049) with the blessings and powers of the age to come, having received the spirit as a token, earnest, as first fruits, of that which is to come. –Romans 4; 6:11; 1 Corinthians 1:21,22; 5:17; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:3-14; Hebrews 6:5; 12:23; James 1:18.

Now we come to Revelation 22:13. Many feel sure that this is Jesus speaking, since the one speaking tells of his “coming”, and in Revelation 22:20, Jesus says: “I come quickly.” And John exclaims: “Amen! Come, Lord Jesus.” This overlooks the fact that the scriptures speak of Yahweh coming, and also of Jesus coming, and that the two are closely associated. This does not mean that Jesus is Yahweh. Yahweh, the God and Father of Jesus, comes to judge the world, not only with and by means of Jesus, but also the saints. — Malachi 3:1-6; Psalm 96:13; 98:9; Daniel 7:18,22; Isaiah 40:10,11; Micah 1:3; Zechariah 14:5; Acts 17:31; 2 Peter 3:7,8; 1 Corinthians 6:2; Psalm 90:4; Jude 1:14,15; Revelation 1:1; 20:4,11-13; 22:6. (See side panel.)

Below we quote Revelation 22:6-21 with our comments in brackets [].

Revelation 22:6 He [The angel mentioned in Revelation 21:9] said to me, “These words are faithful and true. The Lord [Yahweh], the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent his angels to show to his servants the things which must happen soon.” [This agrees with Revelation 1:1-5, that the revelation is from God through Jesus, and delivered by an angel.]

Revelation 22:7 [Note the abrupt change; the angel suddenly quotes someone as coming:] “Behold, I come quickly. Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book.” [Many claim that the one coming is Jesus; however, this could also be speaking of Yahweh. More than likely, since the angel was just referring to Yahweh, the God of the spirits of the prophets, the angel is quoting Yahweh.]

Revelation 22:8 [John again changes and speaks of himself:] Now I, John, am the one who heard and saw these things. When I heard and saw, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel who had shown me these things.

Revelation 22:9 He [the angel] said to me, “See you don’t do it! I am a fellow bondservant with you and with your brothers, the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God.”

Revelation 22:10 He [The angel] said to me, “Don’t seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is at hand.

Revelation 22:11 He who acts unjustly, let him act unjustly still. He who is filthy, let him be filthy still. He who is righteous, let him do righteousness still. He who is holy, let him be holy still.”

Revelation 22:12 [Very abrupty the angel begins to quote someone else again:] “Behold, I come quickly. My reward is with me, to repay to each man according to his work. [The God of Jesus judges the world through Jesus, and each man will get his praise from God. — Acts 17:31; Romans 2:16; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Timothy 4:1] Isaiah 40:10 gives support that this is Yahweh speaking, not Jesus. Jesus never speaks of the “reward” as being his, although one could possibly reason that it is “his” to give, since Yahweh has given all judgment to the Son.

Revelation 22:13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.”

Revelation 22:14 [This is obviously the angel speaking:] “Blessed are those who do his [God’s] commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city.

Revelation 22:15 Outside are the dogs, the sorcerers, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.”

Revelation 22:16 [Now the angel quotes Jesus:] “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify these things to you for the assemblies. I am the root and the offspring of David; the Bright and Morning Star.”

Revelation 22:17 [This is obviously the angel again speaking:] “The Spirit and the bride say, ‘Come!’ He who hears, let him say, ‘Come!’ He who is thirsty, let him come. He who desires, let him take the water of life freely.”

Revelation 22:18 [The angel evidently quotes Jesus, as shown from verse 20:] “I testify to every man who hears the words of the prophecy of this book, if anyone adds to them, may God add to him the plagues which are written in this book.

Revelation 22:19 If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book.”

Revelation 22:20 [John writes] He [Jesus] who testifies these things says, “Yes, I come quickly.” [John responds:] Amen! Come, Lord Jesus.

Revelation 22:21 The grace of the Lord Jesus be with all the saints. Amen. — World English Bible translation, with quotation marks slightly adjusted from that used in the World English.

But let us assume that Jesus is the one speaking in Revelation 22:12,13, as many have claimed. All this would mean is that these titles or phrases applied to Yahweh are also applied to Jesus. Does this mean that Jesus is Yahweh, the God who is identified also as the Father and God of Jesus? Absolutely not!

First we note that none of the passages say that the Father is the Son, or even that the Son equals the Father. Nor do any of these passages directly say anything about the non-creation of either the Father or the Son.

One must admit that just because the same title is applied to individuals, this does not make these two individuals one individual. Else every ruler who has ever used the title “king” would have to be the same individual as every other ruler who has used the title “king.” Each ruler who uses this title, however, uses it with respect to his peculiar realm of domain and time. Thus just because the same titles are given to both the Father and the Son does not mean they are the same being. There are many Bible Students that do apply the term Alpha and Omega to Jesus, but do not see this as having any meaning that Jesus is Yahweh. Some links are provided below that present this argument (We do not necessarily agree with all conclusions given by the authors).
Revelation for the End of the Gospel Age (PDF FILE)
Notes on the Book of Revelation, By Ludlow Loomis (PDF FILE)
Revelation – A Notebook of the Study Records of the New Albany Ecclesia (PDF FILE)
The Revelation of Jesus Christ, by R. E. Streeter

While Yahweh has existed from eternity past, the expression, Alpha and Omega applied to him, does not in itself designate that Yahweh is from everlasting to everlasting, nor do the expressions, “the beginning and the end”, or “the first and the last”. Such an application can be made in that it could be stated that Yahweh is the beginning and end of all who have existed from eternity past. As discussed in our study on “Beginnings”, the word “beginning” does not mean eternity, either past or future, but rather it usually denotes a point in time when something begins, or it used of a person or thing at the start of something. Additionally, the word “first” does not mean eternity but a person or thing at the start of something. Similarly, it can be said concerning the words “last” and “end”; neither of these denote eternity, but rather, just as it says, the last or end of something. The Alpha and Omega symbolism only emphasizes the same thing, since Alpha is the first or start of the Greek alphabet, and Omega is the last or end of the Greek alphabet. Thus, although we do not believe that any scripture applies Alpha and Omega to Jesus, they could be applied to Jesus, but not with the same application as they are applied to only Most High. Nevetheless, the term “first” and “last” is applied to Jesus in Revelation 1:17,18 and also in Revelation 2:8.

How could this term, first and last,apply to both the Father and the Son within the domain of each? Some have noted that Jesus is the first human to be raised to life without end by Yahweh his Father, thus he is called the “firstborn of the dead”. (Colossians 1:18) There can only be one firstborn from the dead, thus Jesus is definitely the first and the last of the firstborn from the dead. He is also the last to be so resurrected directly by God since all others who eventually receive such a resurrection will be through Jesus, not by Yahweh directly. (John 5:21,22; 6:39,44; 11:25) Regardless, there appears to be a connection between his statements that he became dead was now alive forever and ever. In both instances where the terms “first” and “last” are used of Jesus, his death and eternal life is also mentioned in the context. (Revelation 1:17,18; 2:8) Jesus’ holding the keys of death and Hades (Revelation 1:18) shows the authority given to him by his God of releasing all who are in death and hades. — John 5:27-29 (New American Standard); Revelation 20:11-13.

However, there is also another application that could be meant. Each — both Jesus and Yahweh — is the first and the last of his peculiar kind: Yahweh is the first and the last of his peculiar kind, in that he is the first and the last one to be increate, that is, never to have been created. No one was before Yahweh in this sense and no one will be after him in this sense. The Son is the first and the last of his peculiar kind, in that he is the first and the last to have been directly created by God, all other creatures having been indirectly created by God, that is, through the agency of the Logos. Thus the Father and the Son are both unique — which is the meaning of these three expressions — but each of them is unique in a different sense: The Father is unique in that he is the only — the first and the last — being never created; the Son is unique in that he is the only — the first and the last — being ever directly created by Yahweh without the assistance of an agent, which creative assistance by the Logos occurred in the case of all the rest of creation — the Logos himself being excepted. (John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 15:27; See our studies related to John 1:1) Thus Yahweh is the first and the last, the alpha and omega, the beginning and the end of increation — the only being who never was created. The Logos is the first and the last, the alpha and omega, the beginning and the end of God’s direct creation. These terms used with reference to the Son are equivalent to his being called: “the only begotten of the Father.” (John 1:14,18; 3:16,18; 1 John 4:9) Their use with reference to the Father implies that he is from eternity, though not directly teaching it, the direct teaching being his uniqueness in that he never was created or begotten, as was the Son.

Answers to Objections

Some have replied that there can only be one first and last, although their reasons for saying this are vague, to say the least. It seems they wish to demand a restricted application, usually that this expression means eternal, so that it could only apply to God Almighty. It is true that there can only be on who is first and last as God Almighty, and likewise that there is only one who was never created, who has always been. But we have no reason to restrict the term in application to God Almighty, except to satisfy the whims of those who wish to use it thus to prove that Jesus is Yahweh, which, in effect, would make the whole argument circular, that is, ‘we believe that Jesus is Yahweh, thus we believe that the expression first and last must be used in application to God Almighty only, and thus this proves that Jesus is Yahweh.’

We have already shown above that there can be more than one first and last, depending on what is being spoken of and its application. We can also provide the following illustrations: Suppose Brother A goes to a Bible study in SW Philadelphia, and Brother B goes to a Bible study in South Philadelphia. Brother A is the first arrive at the Bible study and SW Philadelphia, and Brother B is the first to arrive at the study in South Philadelphia. Likewise Brother A is the last one to leave the study in SW. Philadelphia, and Brother B. is the last to leave the study in South Philadelphia. You have two who are first and two who are last. Additionally the first and the last line of one book is not the same as the first and last line of another book. Likewise, both Yahweh and Jesus are first and last in their respective applications of that term. Regardless, our trinitarian neighbors will have to agree that there are two persons who are referred to as ‘first and last’, both God the Father and His Son.

Related Links:

Revelation 22:13 – I am Alpha and Omega

Revelation 1:8 – The God of Jesus Speaks

Revelation 1:1,8 and the Unipersonal God

We do not necessarily agree with every conclusion reached by these authors.

Some links to other sites (Many of these may be in opposition to what we have presented above):  1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 * 7 * 8 *

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Copyright 2013 Jesus and His God

8 comments to Alpha and Omega, The First and the Last

  • See mail adres for name and surname, i want to keep it private between you and me

    I have been reading this page and i found something relating to your point of :
    “Nevertheless, he who sits on the throne in the book of Revelation is spoken of as the God of Jesus”

    Unfortunately for those opposing the fact that it is the God and Father who sits on the throne and not Jesus have missed out on something, which i found necesary to share with you in good hope that it might enhance this great page.

    Please resort to Matthew 20:20-23 (King James Version)
    lo and behold; Jesus Himself is asked by the mother of the zebedees to promise a seat for her sons on the left and right sides of His throne, in which The Messiah responds with “but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give” it is from His response that one can in no possible way evade the point of the matter, namely; it is surely, by Jesus’ confirmation that His God and Father is the ONE who sits on the Throne and by this is it made clear that His God and Father is the One who is in controle of everything, making it clear Jesus is NOT God!

    For if it were so that He is God, then this throne would be His to give to anyone He would deem necesary.

    For the author of this page, my name and surname are given in my email adres by which you can also contact me if you would deem it convenient!

    i hope this was of any support for your page and your testimony of the truth.

    God bless you all!

  • Kate

    It is quite shocking to me that many, if not all, Bible translations have errors. The source of some of these errors appears to be the use of the Textus Receptus (TR). This site has information on the TR and a list of KJ errors . I have found quite a few errors to add to this list and I am just getting started. In my analysis I’m also looking at critical reviews of the New World Translation to get a complete picture. My goal is to select the most accurate Bible translation for regular use.

    I noticed that you are using the ASV 1901 version which seems to have many of the same errors as the KJ. For example when you quote Rev 22:14 the text should read “wash their robes” not “are doing his commandments”. This affect who we view is making the statement because when it reads “are doing his commandments” I inferred that it wasn’t Yahweh talking but could be an angel or Jesus. With the text “wash their robes” which when I look at the underlying Greek appears to be accurate, I conclude it could be Yahweh, Jesus or an angel speaking. I hope to reduce or eliminate any chance of being misled by this type of error by picking the most accurately translated version of the Bible and marking it up to correct any errors.

  • Kate

    Thank you for your insightful comment and the additional sources of information. I agree that it will be difficult perhaps impossible to prove what the original text was, but I’m going to keep seeking and praying for an answer because we know that with GOD all things are possible My deepest concern is for all the lost sheep being deceived by the trinity doctrine, and all the verses in scripture that have been added to and changed to support it. I believe as we near the end many will fail the testing we need to endure, because they don’t understand the truth about Yahweh and Jesus. A good example is the Matthew 28:19 baptismal formula which is different than the rest of scripture and suspected to have been changed. There are quite rigorous analyses done on this verse like this one , but in the end the verse contradicts other scripture proving it is false (Luke 24: 46 to 47, Romans 1: 4 to 5, Acts 19: 3 to 5).

    I have to say I am extremely excited to have found your site. I was starting to think I was alone in my beliefs because like you I am not a Jehovah’s Witness, but oddly they are one of the few faiths that don’t support the trinity doctrine.

    May God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you with grace and peace!

  • Jehad

    Isn’t that obvious some scolars said in the book of revelotion when he said i’m the alpha and the omega , the first and the last … ) if you think about it letterly he can’t be the first because theres people before him his mother for ex , and alot of prophets before him , so what’s that mean ???some scholars said he took the scrpiture when he was sleep ? Thats mean’s took it from god the god who spoke and said i’m the first and the last that will be understandable .

    Allso in the book john c16 v12-16
    I still have many things to say to you but you cannot bear thim now ..) complete the scipture you will find out that there is something will come to tell the people about the truth i found out he speaks about islam because when you study it , it’s the most realated religion for christian and holding the truth the Quran i wish you do the right thing , which is study islam to know the truth . Peace
    Email me you have any question about islam .

  • Roger G. McDaniel

    I would question the validity of your assertion that, “In most cases, trying to determine the original text may actually be impossible.” What evidence leads you to that conclusion? I would say that there is substantial evidence to the contrary. I offer this as a start…

    Each year, a theology professor from Dallas Theological Seminary challenges his students with the following project. “I give my class, consisting of about a dozen students, a single handwritten page with three to four paragraphs on it and have them pass it around and each hand copies it for themselves. They are not required to copy “word for word”. In fact, if something doesn’t make sense they may rephrase it, or add additional comments to clarify. If something seems trivial, they may even leave it out.”

    “Then they take their copy and give it to two or three “volunteers” with instructions for them to make their own copies, following the same “loose guidelines”. The third generation copies are likewise copied to produce a fourth, fifth, and so on until each of the twelve “threads” has ten subsequent copies. All copies are gathered and then shuffled together, so that no one knows which are “early” or “later” versions. We then select twelve to fifteen, totally at random (10% of the total) and discard the rest. Now the work begins.”

    “I will spend two to three hours instructing them as to critical methods used to determine whether a manuscript is “early” or “late”. Not “hard rules”, but good guidelines, such as the likelihood that a text using crude language is likely earlier than another version where all difficulties seem to be removed or “polished”. Then the selected copies are distributed and we will spend several hours comparing, eliminating, and blending the results to try and reconstruct the original document.”

    “I’ve been doing this for nearly thirty years, and in all that time the WORST result missed the original version by not more than three words! Most are able to reconstruct the original wording to within one or two words. Then I ask them, ‘Given that you have had less than a half dozen hours of linguistic training and only two dozen copies and half of a day to work, yet you were able to reproduce the original this closely, what do you think is the likelihood that tens of thousands of scholars with tens of thousands of manuscripts working at seminaries and universities around the world for several centuries have produced VERY accurate versions of what the autographs said?'”

    It just seems to me that many disagree with God’s Word, not based on evidence but on bias. They don’t agree with what it says because they don’t WANT to agree with what it says. They find “contradictions” and “errors” and make much ado over them, but they constitute less than 5% of the text, and none impact any major point of doctrine. A bit of historical research and cultural studies can eliminate most of the stragglers as well. And last, but CERTAINLY not least, every believer who opens Scripture can go straight to the Author, asking the Holy Spirit to open heart and mind to what God intends to say. So, while I will give that the task is not simple or easy, to claim (contrary to experience that it CAN be done) that it is impossible is not intellectually honest. Maranatha

  • ResLight

    Sadly, I will soon be removing this site, but I am saving the replies that are given so as to respond to them at some time, God willing, on the new sites at: