hupomneesai de humas boulomai eidotas
TO REMIND BUT YOU I AM WISHING, (ONES) HAVING KNOWN
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hapax panta hoti kurios laon ek gees
ONCE FOR ALL ALL (THINGS), THAT LORD PEOPLE OUT OF EARTH
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aiguptou swsas to deuteron tous mee
OF EGYPT HAVING SAVED THE SECOND [TIME] THE (ONES) NOT
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HAVING BELIEVED HE DESTROYED,
Westcott & Hort Interlinear
Now I desire to remind you, though you already know this, that the Lord, having saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who didn’t believe. — Jude 1:5, World English.
Now I desire to remind you, though you already know this, that Jehovah, having saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe. — Jude 1:5, RL Improved Version.
I will therefore admonish you, though ye once knew all things, that Jesus, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, did afterwards destroy them that believed not. — Jude 1:5, Douay-Rheims Version
The Vatican 1209 manuscript and the Alexandrian Manuscript (two of the oldest Greek manuscripts available), both have the Greek form of “Jesus” in Jude 1:5 instead of the Greek word often transliterated as KURIOS. The Latin Vulgate, has a Latin form of the name for “Jesus”. The Peshitta Syriac has the form for “God”. Thus, there are at least four variants in early manuscripts of Jude 1:5 as related to who brought the people out of Egypt: “Lord”, “Jesus”, “God”, and “God Christ”.
Nevertheless, due to fact that some translations put “Jesus” as the one who saved the people out of the land of Egypt, many cite this verse as proof that Jesus is Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
Does the fact that some early manuscripts contain “Jesus” in this verse mean that we should accept the reading of the Greek form for “Jesus” in Jude 1:5 instead of the Greek for “Lord”? Obviously, someone did change the reading from its original, else we would not have variant readings. Based on the Hebrew Scriptures that are being referred to, it appears that more than likely Jude here originally wrote the Holy Name, which later copyists may have abbreviated, which other copyists may have misunderstood as meaning Jesus, while other copyists changed the Holy Name to the Greek word often transliterated as KURIOS (lord, master, ruler), or to THEOS (God). Thus, several translators, including trinitarian translators, have restored the Holy Name in Jude 1:5 where one finds the Greek word transliterated as KURIOS. — See the footnote of the New World Translation, 1971 edition, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.
As best as we can tell the following are Manuscripts often attributed to the fourth century that contain Jude 5:
p72 reads “God Christ”
Vaticanus reads “Jesus”
Sinaiticus reads “Lord”
Bohairc Coptic reads “Jesus”
Latin Vulgate reads “Jesus”
Some other later manuscripts and translations have “Jesus” in Jude 1:5, as well as “Lord” or “God”.
Of course, while many often refer to the manuscripts of the fourth century as “early manuscripts”, the fourth century was a long time after the original writing of Jude. As far as we know, we do not have any earlier extant manuscripts than the fourth century that contain Jude 1:5. Thus any conclusions regarding what Jude originally wrote should be based on other factors, especially as may be related to the context of the entire Bible and what other scriptures say.
Of course, we do believe that Jesus was with His God and Father in Old Testament times (John 1:1; 8:58; 17:1,3,5), and we believe that it is possible that Jehovah did make use of Jesus in delivering the children of Israel out of Egypt. Many Bible Students believe that the “angel of Jehovah” spoken of in Judges 2:1 was God’s Son, before he became flesh and received the name, Jesus. Thus, the use of “Jesus” in Jude 1:5 could be seen as a verification of this, but this cannot be used as a basis for determining that “Jesus” was what Jude originally wrote. Nevertheless, if Jude did write Jesus in Jude 1:5, this does not mean that we need to imagine and assume that Jesus is Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
According to the Old Testament, who brought Israel out of Egypt? The Bible says that Jehovah brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt:
And it came to pass the selfsame day, that Jehovah did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.. – Exodus 12:51, American Standard Version (ASV).
I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.. – Exodus 20:2, ASV.
I am Jehovah that brought you up out of the land of Egypt. — Leviticus 11:45, ASV.
I am Jehovah your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt. – Leviticus 25:38, ASV.
Jehovah thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night. — Deuteronomy 16:1, ASV.
Jehovah alone did lead him [Israel/Jacob – verse 9] – Deuteronomy 32:12, ASV.
Jehovah our God, he it is that brought us and our fathers up out of the land of Egypt. – Joshua 24:17, ASV.
Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, I brought up Israel out of Egypt. – 1 Samuel 10:18, ASV.
And there have I set a place for the ark, wherein is the covenant of Jehovah, which he made with our fathers, when he brought them out of the land of Egypt. – 1 Kings 8:21, ASV.
I am Jehovah thy God, Who brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. – Psalm 81:10, ASV.
Jehovah that brought us up out of the land of Egypt. – Jeremiah 2:6, ASV
As Jehovah liveth, that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. – Jeremiah 16:14, ASV.
There are many, many more scriptures that attest that it was Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob of Exodus 3:14,15 and Acts 3:13, who brought Israel out of the land of Egypt. Thus, testimony of the Scriptures would indicate that Jude would have written some form of the Holy Name in Jude 1:5, in speaking of Him who “saved a people out of the land of Egypt.”
A point related to this, however, regarding the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob: Did Peter, in Acts 3:13, depict the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as being Jesus? No, Deuteronomy 18:15-19 and Acts 3:13-26 clearly distinguishes Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob from Jesus. Likewise, in Isaiah 61:1, the Lord Jehovah is clearly distinguished from Jesus, and it is confirmed by Jesus words to the only true God as recorded in John 17:1,3. In fact, Jesus, by stating that it was the only true God (Supreme Being) who had sent him, denies being the only true God Supreme Being).
However, regarding who brought the children of Israel out Egypt, we also read that Moses and Aaron brought the children of Israel out of Egypt:
Jehovah said to Moses:
Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt. — Exodus 3:10, ASV.
And Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt? — Exodus 3:11, ASV.
And Jehovah spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. — Exodus 6:13, ASV.
Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water. — Exodus 15:22, ASV.
Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, that thou broughtest up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves. – Exodus 32:7, ASV
Does this mean that since both Moses and Jehovah delivered the Israelites out of Egypt, that this must mean that Moses is Jehovah? No one seriously claims that Moses is Jehovah, yet according to the reasoning of those who wish to use similar arguments to prove that Jesus is Jehovah, it would seem that these scriptures should definitely prove that Moses is Jehovah.
So how is it that it can be said that both Moses and Jehovah delivered Israel, if Moses is not Jehovah? Taking the Bible as a whole we learn:
You [Jehovah] led your people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron. — Psalm 77:20, ASV.
By a prophet Jehovah brought Israel up out of Egypt. – Hosea 12:13, ASV.
In this manner it could be said that both Jehovah and Moses brought Israel out of Egypt; it is likewise with the greater Moses, Jesus. — Deuteronomy 18:15-19.
In reality, Jehovah often takes the credit for what his servants do in his name. (Exodus 3:10,12; 12:17; 18:10; Numbers 16:28; Judges 2:6,18; 3:9,10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:24,25; 14:6,19; 15:14,18; 16:20,28-30, 2 Kings 4:27; Isaiah 43:11, 45:1-6; etc.) Just because one scripture says Jehovah did this or that, and another scripture says that Moses, Gideon, David or another of God’s servants did the same, does not mean that any of these are Jehovah.
Likewise with Jesus. All is from the only true God through Jesus (1 Corinthians 8:6); Jesus speaks the words given to him from the only true Supreme Being. — Exodus 3:13,14; Deuteronomy 18:15-19; Isaiah 61:1; John 3:34; 5:19; 6:29; 7:16,28; 8:26,28,42; 10:36; 12:44-50; 14:10,24; 17:1,3,8; Acts 3:13-26; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Galatians 4:4; Hebrews 1:1,2; 1 John 4:9,10
It was the God and Father of Jesus who has made Jesus both Lord and Christ (Ezekiel 34:23,24; Isaiah 61:1,2; Acts 2:36), and has exalted him to the highest position in the universe, next to the only Most High.– Acts 2:33,36; 5:31; Philippians 2:9; Ephesians 1:3,17-23; 1 Corinthians 15:27; Hebrews 1:4; 1 Peter 3:22.
Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, is the only true Supreme Being who sent Jesus; Jesus speaks the words given to him from the only true Supreme Being. — Exodus 3:13,14; Deuteronomy 18:15-19; Isaiah 61:1; John 3:34; 5:19; 6:29; 7:16,28; 8:26,28,42; 10:36; 12:44-50; 14:10,24; 17:1,3,8; Acts 3:13-26; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Galatians 4:4; Hebrews 1:1,2; 1 John 4:9,10.
It is the God and Father of Jesus who has made Jesus both Lord and Christ (Ezekiel 34:23,24; Isaiah 61:1,2; Acts 2:36), and has exalted him to the highest position in the universe, next to the only Most High.– Acts 2:33,36; 5:31; Philippians 2:9; Ephesians 1:3,17-23; 1 Corinthians 15:27; Hebrews 1:4; 1 Peter 3:22.
The default reasoning is that Jesus is NOT Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who sanctified and sent His son into the world of mankind. — Isaiah 61:1; John 3:17; 5:36,37; 6:38,57; 8:42; 10:36; 17:1,3; Romans 8:3; Galatians 4:4; 1 John 4:9-14.
No one on earth today, however, can be certain that Jude actually did use a Greek form of “Jesus”. The more reasonable view, in harmony with the Scriptures, would be that this is a copyist error, perhaps caused by copying from a manuscript that used an abbreviated form of the Holy Name which the copyist confused with Jesus.
On the other hand, in the fourth century the foretold apostasy was rapidly growing. there was a strong effort to find whatever could be found to support the idea that Jesus was God Almighty, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Thus, there is the possibility that the name “Jesus” was inserted here deliberately, based on the belief that Jesus is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who brought the Israelites out of Egypt.
Of course, choosing one variant over another, for whatever reasons given, does not actually offer any proof that Jesus is Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. There is no way that we could determine that any particular variant is absolutely the way it was originally written, and then base dogma on that variant. Indeed, although we highly doubt that Jude actually had written “Jesus” in Jude 1:5, if Jehovah used Jesus to bring the children of Israel out of Egypt, etc., it does not mean that we need imagine, assume, add to and read into the scriptures that Jesus is the God who raised up Jesus, who speaks through Jesus, etc. Of course, the trinitarian imagines, assumes, and reads into the scriptures that it was the first person of their alleged triune God who sent the second person of their alleged triune God, etc. In reality, the Bible is fully at harmony with itself without adding all of what has to be imagined and assumed in order to get the triune God dogma into the Bible.
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